Moringa Oleifera a natural gift

Moringa Oleifera a natural gift

Moringa has been used since 150B.C. by ancient kings and queens in their diet for mental alertness and healthy skin.

Antiquity;  The indigenous knowledge and use of  Moringa  is  referenced  in  more  than  80 countries and known in over 200 local languages. Moringa has been used by various  societies  {Roman,  Greek,  Egyptian, and Indian to mention a few} for thousands of years with writings dating as far back as 150 AD. The history of Moringa dates back to 150 B.C. Historical proofs reveal that ancient kings and queens used Moringa leaves and fruit in their  diet  to  maintain  mental  alertness  and healthy skin. Ancient Maurian warriors of India were  fed  with  Moringa  Leaf  Extract  in  the warfront. The Elixir drink was believed to add them extra energy and relieve them of the stress and  pain  incurred  during  war.  These  brave soldiers were the ones who defeated “Alexander” the Great. ” {17, 32,  44 }.

Traditional  Medicine  ;  Moringa  has  been used in the traditional medicine passed down for centuries in many cultures around the word, for  skin  infections, anemia, anxiety, asthma, blackheads, blood impurities,    bronchitis, catarrh, chest congestion, cholera, conjunctivitis, cough, diarrhea, eye and ear infections,  fever,  glandular,  swelling, headaches, abnormal blood pressure, hysteria, pain in joints, pimples, psoriasis, respiratory disorders,  scurvy,  semen  deficiency,  sore throat,  sprain,  tuberculosis,  for  intestinal worms, lactation ,diabetes and  pregnancy The healing properties of Moringa oil, have been documented  by  ancient cultures.  Moringa  oil has tremendous cosmetic value and is used in body and hair care as a moisturizer and skin conditioner. Moringa oil has been used in skin preparations and ointments since Egyptian times.  {17, 33, 38, 39, 44 }.

The present review is intended to create public awareness regarding benefit of an edible plant Moringa which is also known as miracle tree. There are about 13 species of Moringa trees in the  genus  Moringa  of  family  Moringaceae. These  are  Moringa Oleifera M.Arborea,M.Borziana,M.Concanensis,M.Drouhardii,M.Hildebrandtii,M.Longituba,M.Ovalifolia,M.Peregrine,M. Pygmaea,M.Rivae, M.Ruspoliana, and  M.Stenopetala. The most widely known species Moringa Oleifera reported as  “Mpringa”{34,44}.

Moringa is very impressive and amazing plant due to its tested, trusted and potential benefits from nutritional as well therapeutical point of views.  This  friendly  plant  is  of  great significance as shown to be useful in water purification, cosmetics, livestock fodder, plant growth enhancer and biogas. In the last ten years, hundreds of research articles, theses, reports, and patents have been published on Moringa.  Newspapers, scientific journals, documentaries {Discovery Channel} feature Moringa more and more.  The Church World Service recently organized the first ever Moringa Tree International Conference to educate about Moringa’s use as an indigenous resource for fighting hunger and malnutrition {15, 16, 17, 33,44}.

The plants have always been vital for mankind irrespective of the era and area all over the globe since the beginning of life. These were, are and will remain ever beneficial from nutritional, social, cultural, religious, environmental and human’s health etc. The medicinal plants have greatest potential for benefiting people, especially those living in countries suffering from poverty, poor health, malnutrition, unemployment and isolation in international trade. The 21st century is the century of biology powered and propelled by scientific knowledge and technological expertise. Three technologies namely “Biotechnology”, ”Herbal technology” and “Information technology {Bioinformatics}” are going to be the most powerful elements that are crucial for prosperity and welfare for the people of nations. All technologies for the manufacture of value added plant products can be called as herbal technology. The global trade in herbals is increasing swiftly and in hundreds of billions in US$.

Moringa Oleifera, Lam {Syn M.pterygosperma Gaertn} usually mentioned in literature as Moringa, is a natural as well as cultivated variety of the genus Moringa belonging to family Moringaceae.
Moringa is an edible extremely safe plant.

Animal feed fortification; Moringa leaves added to cattle feed increased their daily weight gain by up to 32 percent. Feed of milk cows was supplemented with 15 to 17 kilograms of fresh  Moringa  leaves  daily,  and  the  cattle’s milk production increased by 43 percent. Feed supplemented with 2 kg dry matter and milk production increased by 58 percent. Then feed supplemented with 3 kg dry matter per day, and milk production increased by 65 percent. Imagine what would be possible if milk production in developing countries could be increased in this way. It could prevent untold suffering  of  people  with  protein  deficiency.{13, 14}.

Plant growth enhancer; Lab experimentation had  shown  that  Moringa  spray  had  a  wide range of beneficial effects on plant crops. Effects of spray indicated accelerated growth of young plants. Plants were firmer, more resistant to pests and disease. longer life-span, heavier roots, stems and leaves, produced more fruit, larger fruit, increase in yield 20-35% If even a fraction of these results could be reproduced in the field, it could be a great help in increasing food  supplies  for  millions  of  hungry  people.{13}.

Water purification: A billion people across Asia, Africa, and Latin America are estimated to rely on untreated surface water sources for their daily water needs. Of these, some two million are thought to die from diseases caught from contaminated water every year, with the majority of these deaths occurring among children under five years of age.

Powdered seed act as a natural flocculent, able to clarify even the most turbid water Seed powder can be used as a quick and simple method for cleaning dirty water. The powder joins with the solids in the water and sinks to the  bottom.  This  treatment  also  removes  90-99% of bacteria contained in water, water purification by flocculation, sedimentation, antibiosis and even reduction of Schistosome cercariae titer. Using Moringa to purify water replaces chemicals such as aluminum sulphate, which are dangerous to people and the environment, and are expensive. Twenty litres of water may be purified by adding  2 grams of powder to one cup of clean water, pour into a bottle and shake for 5 minutes. Filter the solution through a clean cloth into the bucket of dirty water that is to be treated. Stir the water quickly for 2 minutes and slowly for 10 to 15 minutes {do not use metal implements}.Leave the bucket undisturbed for one hour or until the water becomes clear and the impurities have sunk to the bottom. Filter the water through a clean  cloth  Boil  the  water  before  drinking. {20,26,28.42,46}.

Moringa oil: Moringa Oleifera is the best known of the 13 species of the genus Moringaceae.  It  was  highly  valued  in  the ancient world. The Romans, Greeks and Egyptians extracted edible oil from the seeds and used it for perfume and skin lotion. In the 19th  century,  plantations  of  Moringa  in  the West Indies exported the oil to Europe for perfumes and lubricants for machinery. A study was done in Pakistan to examine the physico- chemical characteristics of Moringa oleifera seeds and seed oil from a wild provenance of Pakistan.  The  Moringa seeds  harvested  from the forests of Kohat district of NWFP exhibited an oil yield of 34.80%. Protein, fiber, moisture and ash contents were 31.65, 7.54, 8.90 and

6.53%, respectively. The extracted M.Oleifera seed oil revealed an iodine value of 68.63; refractive    index    {40°C},    1.4571;    density {24°C},0.9032  g  cm-3;  saponification  value,181.4;  unsaponifiable  matter,  0.74%;  acidity {as oleic acid} 0.81% and color {1-in. cell} 1.28 R + 31.00 Y. Determinations of oxidation parameters like induction period {Rancimat 20 L/h, 120°C}, specific extinctions at   232 and

270 nm, peroxide- and p-anisidine values demonstrated a good oxidative stability of the investigated M. oleifera oil.Tocopherols {a, ? and d} contents of the oil amounted to 140.5,63.18 and 61.70 mg kg-1,respectively and were reduced considerably after degumming. The major sterol components of the oil were ß- sitosterol {46.16%}, campesterol {17.59%}, stigmasterol  {18.80%}  and  ?5,  avenasterol

{9.26%}. The wild M. oleifera seed oil was found to contain oleic acid up to 73.22%, followed by palmitic, stearic, behenic and arachidic acids 6.45, 5.50, 6.16 and 4.08%, respectively and fell in the category of high- oleic oils. The results of different quality attributes of M. oleifera oil from a wild provenance of Pakistan reveal that it could be employed     for     edible     and     commerce. {1,5,12,17,33,44}.

The Moringa Oleifera plant is the most inexpensive and credible alternative to not only providing good nutrition, but also the cure and prevention of a lot of diseases. Moringa tree could easily and cheaply be cultivated and grown.
We need to design and develop strategy on war footing in order to explore and utilize full benefits  of  this  miracle  tree.  The  research project should be made for commercial production of food product, neutroceuticals, Moringa oil {edible as well as cosmetics}, fortified feed for cattle, biogas, and plant fertilizer. The plants for water purification by Moringa should be designed.
The clinical studies with human subjects should be taken to investigate: nutrient bio-availability and bio-toxicity, positive effects on the immune system in fighting diseases, such as: malnutrition, HIV/AIDS, and sexually transmitted infections tuberculosis effects claimed by traditional medicine in regard to diseases, such as: hypertension, diabetes and high blood pressure, antioxidant properties in fighting diseases, such as:  heart disease, cancer and Alzheimer’s disease.
The  poor  countries  should  promote  planting and  use  of  Moringa  instead  of  waiting  for bounties of food relief from the rich west. Could easily fight against the problems of    malnutrition,   hunger,   poverty,   diseases, unemployment, and    edible oil export by utilizing its full   benefits. The   lot   foreign exchange could be earned by exporting product of Moringa instead spending foreign  exchange on imports.
Moringa truly appears to be a “Miracle” plant having countless benefits for humanity and thus should be taken as a high quality gift of nature at very low price.

Moringa Oleifera a natural giftMoringa oleifera: a natural gift-A review
Khawaja Tahir Mahmood1 Tahira Mugal2  and Ikram Ul Haq3
1DTL, Government of Punjab, Lahore
2LCWU, Lahore,3 Akhter Saeed Cllege of Pharmaceutical Sciences, , Lahore

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Khawaja Tahir Mahmood1 Tahira Mugal2  and Ikram Ul Haq3 1DTL, Government of Punjab, Lahore 2LCWU, Lahore,3 Akhter Saeed Cllege of Pharmaceutical Sciences, , Lahore.

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